Predictors of Academic Success in a Non-Traditional Doctor of Pharmacy Degree Program at a Historically Black College and University



Objective. Rapid changes in the current U.S. health care system, especially in the fields of pharmacy and pharmaceutical sciences, require practicing pharmacists to acquire new knowledge and skills. Despite the growth of opportunities for pharmacists within new spaces such as nanotechnology, informatics, and pharmacogenomics, those without the Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD) could be eliminated from consideration by employers who seek new graduates with more contemporary training and skills. The purpose of this study was to determine which associations exist between student success within the Non-Traditional Doctor of Pharmacy (NTDP) program and certain demographic factors.

Methods. This quantitative longitudinal study was designed to determine which factors predict academic success among NTDP students entering the College of Pharmacy. Academic success was measured by cumulative graduating grade point average (GPA). Data from four cohorts of students was utilized to develop multivariate linear regression models with several predictors including age, region of residence, citizenship status, previous pharmacy work background, and ethnicity.

Results. The study sample included 81 students and the mean cumulative GPA was 3.44. A foreign-born African heritage was predictive of a GPA that was significantly higher in comparison to African Americans after adjusting for other factors.

Conclusion. Findings showed that international students had a higher cumulative GPA in comparison to African American students in the NTDP program.

Please see original publication here.

Youness R. Karodeh, LaMarcus Wingate, Imbi Drame, Patricia Y. Talbert, Ashley Dike and Sophia Sin

American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education October 2021, 8600; DOI: